Problem Challenge by AgroSolar Europe: 

Create a solution for the efficient transfer of green energy from agrivoltaics to grid energy to be used in mobility and/or proptech in Berlin. 


Fig. 1: Ground-Mounted PV system [4]

Fig. 2: Global solar irradiation and precipitation in Germany from 1999 [2].


Fig. 2 explains how the amount of rainfall in Germany has dropped and then how solar irradiation has increased, thereby showcasing how the irradiation increase can be beneficial to the Solar Pv for generating electricity and also that the PV panels will serve as a shade so there will be less water removal from the plan as regards the heat flux from the increased irradiance.


Introduction: Agrivoltaics is the practice of co-locating solar panels above crops in farms. This concept is gaining popularity because it generates green energy and increases crop yield through shading and protection from excess sunlight. It is an emerging technology that combines modern solar panels with agricultural production. This system is essential in the promotion of sustainable development, especially in areas where land is scarce. The solar panels provide shade, reduce water loss, and generate electricity, leading to several benefits, including environmental sustainability, increased crop productivity, and renewable energy generation. The implementation of this method can play a vital role in contributing to urban innovation by creating a sustainable and eco-friendly environment. In urban areas, space is a premium commodity, and the integration of solar panels into farm fields provides a new avenue for generating renewable energy and enhancing crop production without acquiring additional land. This approach helps urban farming and agriculture become more sustainable, environment-friendly, and cost-effective. The innovative aspect of this technology lies in its ability to combine two industries requiring significant land use- agriculture and energy- into one system that simultaneously serves both purposes. Notwithstanding, Mobility can benefit significantly from agrivoltaics. Electric vehicles are an important part of the transition towards low-carbon mobility. The use of solar-powered electric vehicles can potentially avoid the emission of millions of tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere every year. The utilization of agrivoltaic systems in transportation holds great potential in ensuring that electric vehicles operate with low carbon footprints. Agrivoltaics can also help overcome the issues of range anxiety in electric vehicles by providing readily available charging infrastructure.


How can we create Efficient Transfer of Green Energy From Agrivoltaic To Grid Energy To Be Used in Mobility ?


Agrivoltaics, also known as agrovoltaics or solar sharing, is a concept that involves the coexistence of agriculture and solar energy production in the same land area. It combines the cultivation of crops or raising of livestock with the installation of solar panels to generate renewable energy. This system is essential in promoting sustainable development, especially in areas where land is scarce.

The cultivation of crops or raising of livestock can also result to another source of renewable energy source, which is called Biogas.

Integrating biogas systems into Agrivoltaics presents an efficient solution for transferring green energy to the grid, which can be utilized for mobility and/or Proptech applications in Berlin. Within the system framework, the abundant farm waste resources in the region, including agricultural residues, crop waste, and animal manure, can be utilized as a valuable feedstock for renewable energy generation. These organic materials can be converted through anaerobic digestion into biogas—a versatile energy source suitable for heating, electricity generation, and more.

By combining AgriPV with biogas production, farmers can leverage their land to tap into multiple renewable energy sources. Solar panels can be strategically installed for efficient electricity generation, while biogas digesters can convert organic waste into biogas, ensuring a continuous and reliable energy supply. This integrated strategy maximizes the agricultural land's energy potential while reducing environmental impact. 

AgriPV and biogas systems enable farmers to produce renewable electricity and efficiently use waste materials to generate biogas. Using this hybrid system, farmers may satisfy their own energy needs while cutting greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, agricultural waste from crops can be further converted into biofuels, increasing the agrivoltaic system's overall energy output and efficiency.

The generated green energy may be smoothly incorporated into Berlin's grid infrastructure (depending on production and the energy generation capacity), offering a sustainable supply for driving electric cars and other Proptech applications, including energy-efficient structures and smart city programs. 

This solution promotes a transition towards a greener and more sustainable energy ecosystem in Berlin, benefiting both the environment and the community.

Fig. 3 : Control diagram for the proposed Agrivoltaic-Biogas System [2].

Explanation of the Control Diagram


Farm plant and farm animal waste are directed to a biodigester where anaerobic digestion occurs. The biodigester breaks down the organic waste and produces biogas, which is then fed into a biogas generator.

The biogas generator converts the biogas into usable energy, typically in the form of electricity. The generated electricity is then transmitted through an AC transmission line, which allows for efficient distribution over longer distances.


At the distribution level, the low voltage AC (LVAC) distribution network delivers the electricity to consumers. An energy meter is employed to measure and monitor the energy consumption.

 In parallel, a ground-mounted photovoltaic (PV) system captures sunlight and converts it into DC electricity. The DC electricity is regulated by a charge controller and stored in a battery bank for later use.

 To connect the PV system to an HVDC grid, a DC-DC step-up converter is employed. The DC-DC converter adjusts the voltage level of the DC power generated by the PV system to match the requirements of the HVDC transmission system.

 The HVDC transmission line facilitates the long-distance transmission of the DC power from the PV system. At the receiving end, a DC to AC converter station converts the DC power back to AC, allowing for integration with the AC transmission line.

 The AC transmission line then transports the converted AC power to the LVAC distribution network, where it is further distributed to consumers. Similar to the biogas system, an energy meter is utilized to measure and monitor the electricity consumption from the PV system.


This integrated system utilizes farm waste resources and solar energy to generate electricity. The biogas system converts organic waste into biogas, while the PV system harnesses sunlight. By incorporating DC-DC conversion and HVDC transmission, the PV system can be seamlessly connected to the grid, providing renewable energy for mobility and proptech applications in Berlin.


Both farmers and investors may benefit financially from the integration of agri voltaics and biogas system generation. Here are some of the ways the respective parties could generate funds money the technology synergy:


Energy Sales: Farmers can generate funds by directly selling the electricity generated by agro voltaic and biogas systems to the grid or consumers or via power purchase agreements or participation in feed-in tariff programs, where they are paid a set amount for each kilowatt-hour of electricity produced.

Waste Management Services: Local farms and businesses can benefit from farmers' services for waste management. They can charge fees for gathering and processing organic waste, using their biogas facilities to turn it into biogas, and offering a sustainable waste disposal solution.

The sale of biogas products: Farmers might look at options to market compressed or liquefied biogas for use as a green automotive fuel. As an alternative to traditional fossil fuels, they can form relationships with transportation agencies or gas stations and make money by selling biogas.

Crop Productivity and Quality: By offering shade and lowering water evaporation, agrivoltaics can favor crop productivity. Selling products of higher quality at a profit or participating in agricultural subsidy programs that encourage sustainable practices and improved production are two ways farmers can supplement their income [2].


Project Financing: Investors can contribute money to the installation of solar PV and biogas systems on farms. In exchange for a return on their investment, usually in the form of interest or equity ownership in the project, they can provide funds through loans or investments [2].

Revenue Sharing: Investors can contract with farmers to share in the profits from energy sales or other forms of monetization in the form of revenue-sharing agreements. This enables investors to gain from the project's long-term revenue potential.

Carbon Credits and Environmental Certifications: Investors can take part in the sale of carbon credits and environmental certifications that are produced as a result of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. They can earn money by buying these credits from farmers and selling them to businesses wishing to reduce their carbon footprint [1,3].

Long-Term Project Profits: Investors can gain long-term profits by funding renewable energy projects. The power price and the project's overall profitability may rise over time as the demand for clean energy rises. Both farmers and investors need to conduct thorough financial analysis, assess market conditions, and explore available incentives and subsidy programs to maximise the revenue potential of implementing this integrated solution. Collaboration between farmers and investors can create a win-win situation, promoting sustainable energy generation while generating financial returns for all parties involved.


1.     The hybrid Agrovoltaic-Biogas system is an effective means of supplying the grid with green energy. Biogas, a renewable energy source, is created by utilizing the resources of farm animal and plant waste. 

2.    The integration of a ground-mounted PV system further enhances the energy generation potential.

3.    The combination of biogas and solar PV systems provides a diversified and reliable energy generation approach, reducing dependency on traditional fossil fuels.


1.    The project has the capacity to grow. As more farms adopt the hybrid agrovoltaic-biogas system, more organic waste can be utilized to produce biogas, which boosts energy production.

2.    The area covered by the ground-mounted PV system can be increased, allowing it to collect more sunlight and produce more electricity.

3.    The scalability of renewable energy generation is made possible by the integration of DC-DC conversion and HVDC transmission, which permits the connection of multiple PV systems to the grid.

 Social Benefits:

1.    The project contributes to environmental sustainability by reducing greenhouse gas emissions through the utilisation of organic waste for biogas production and solar energy for electricity generation.

2.    The generation of green energy helps mitigate the detrimental effects of climate change.

3.    The project promotes the use of renewable energy sources, increases knowledge of environmentally friendly behaviours, and contributes to energy transition towards a low-carbon future.

4.    This Technology will help reduce food wastages and promote food security.

 Economic Benefits:

1.    The hybrid Aerovoltaic-Biogas system can generate revenue through the sale of electricity to the grid or directly to consumers, providing an additional income source for farmers.

2.    By diversifying their income streams, farmers can reduce risks associated with fluctuating commodity prices and generate more stable and sustainable revenue.

3.    The project can generate an extra source of income to Farmers by allowing the market of compressed or liquefied biogas for use as a cooking gas for households, etc.

4.    It can also positively impact soil fertility as the sludge from the biogas decomposition can serve as natural fertilizers that will benefit the soil.

5.    The project can create employment opportunities in the renewable energy sector, supporting local job growth and rural development.

6. Integrating biogas and solar PV systems can help reduce energy costs for farmers and consumers by offsetting grid electricity with renewable energy.




1] Khan, I., Farooq, M., & Azam, A. (2023). A Study on Carbon Credits Market and Its Accounting Implication in India. 47(1).

[2] Ise, F. (n.d.). Agrivoltaics: Opportunities for Agriculture and the Energy Transition.

[3] Yao, S., Zhang, X., & Zheng, W. (2022). On green credits and carbon productivity in China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(29), 44308–44323

[4] sources 

Other Sources

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[6] Odoi-Yorke, F., Abaase, S., Zebilila, M., & Atepor, L. (2022). Odoi-Yorke, F., Abaase, S., Zebilila, M., & Atepor, L. (2022). Feasibility analysis of solar PV/biogas hybrid energy system for rural electrification Cogent Engineering, 9(1), 2034376.