Most rural community in sub saharan africa experiences with insecure because they rely on rain fed agriculture for production of step food which is limited to 2-5 months of rain season.On top of potential annual caloric shortages, households face two seasonal challenges: one they must stretch their stores of food to the next harvest, or purchase additional food to supplement their deficity during dry season which is charecterized by higher prices.
So smallholder staple food production systems are often both risky and relatively low-return, with low commercial value of staple crops charecterised with poor yields due to erratic rainfal.These are two major problems that are expected to worsen in the next few years under climate change
To intervine this, is to act by promotion of small holder solar irrigation system as a strategy for poverty reduction, climate adaptation to enhance households food security. Apart from staple food irrigation it will play a role of pastoralist watering livestocks.
The best option is to use drip irrigation, this option had two Drip irrigation delivers water (and fertilizer) directly to the roots of plants, thereby improving soil moisture conditions. The second advantage is water savings of up to 40–80%, and associated fertilizer, pesticide, and labor savings over conventional irrigation systems.