The new web3 developer stack for 2023

As web3 continues to evolve, it's essential for developers to stay ahead of the curve by learning new programming languages and technologies.

In this article, we will explore the new web3 developer stack for 2023 and highlight the languages and resources that you need to master in order to be successful in this field.

Table of contents

The foundations
The web3 developer stack
Smart contracts and Dapps
Nodes are essential on web3 developer stack
The importance of Wallets
Blockchain development environments for EVM
Storing images, videos and files
Practice through hackathons and bounties

The foundations

There are different levels and types of programming. 

Besides the basic procedural programming languages that provide variables, functions, and statements (for example, Dreamweaver, Eclipse, BASIC, C, Java, PASCAL and FORTRAN), there is a list of functional, object-oriented, scripting, and logic programming languages that you should learn before going to web3.

The following is a list of programming languages that will give you a strong foundation and enable you to work with web3 programming:

  • Phyton: probably the best to learn first. It is easy to use and develop scalable web apps. Lots of startups use Phyton as a backend stack. YouTube and Instagram, for example, are built on Python. It is also widely used for DApps and smart contracts development.

  • Java: widely used in Android App Development and many large companies, Java provides great opportunities for blockchain developers because it is frequently chosen for building smart contracts and Dapps.

  • C and C++: almost all low-level systems are written in C/C++. There are several compilers and libraries to work with C++ and C offering great portability. C++ is probably the best language for cryptocurrency development.

  • JavaScript and NodeJS: famous, easy, and good to design interactive frontend apps. Startups usually use NodeJS, based on JavaScript, for server-side and running scripts.

  • PHP: This programming language competes with Python and JavaScript, and is one of the most popular ones. It is indicated for backend developers and to develop different complexity ranges on blockchain solutions.

  • C#: also recommended for backend programming, this language was developed by Microsoft and it is widely used for desktop applications.

  • Golang/Go: designed by Google, it’s an open-source programming language used by startups in Silicon Valley for cloud and network services, web development, DevOps, etc. 

While there are other programming languages, these ones will give you a strong foundation to start learning about blockchain development.

 👉 Key differences between blockchain developer vs software developer

The Web3 Developer stack

According to developer relations engineer Nader Dabit, in this article, the Web3 stack is different from traditional web architecture because it’s based on blockchain identity. It may be divided into the blockchain development environment, file storage, P2P Databases, API (Indexing & Querying), Identify, Client (frameworks and libraries), and other protocols.  

We can simplify all this by giving you: 

  1. A simple tip: there are web3 libraries such as web3.js, ethers.js, and that may help you before developing blockchain, interacting with smart contracts and developing your first decentralized applications (Dapps)

  2. The name of some programming languages that are crucial to work on these categories and develop incredible solutions. 

So, as one of the blockchain developer skills is problem-solving, you will need to put together some language solutions. It means that having knowledge of previous programming languages will help to activate essential new solutions for a web3 developer, such as blockchain, smart contracts, and Dapps. 

Here, we can even open a parenthesis and reinforce the importance of JavaScript, because this programming language became highly important in blockchains. 

An example of this is the Hyperledger Fabric platform (open-source blockchain framework hosted by Linux), which allows building with a few programming languages, such as JavaScript (Node.js).

Another thing: one of the first steps we recommend is underlying programming languages for cryptocurrencies such as Ethereum. 

Smart contracts and Dapps

Some of the languages mentioned earlier are paramount to programming on web3 due to their ability to build smart contracts. For those unfamiliar, a smart contract is a computer protocol meant to digitally facilitate, verify or enforce the negotiation or performance of a contract. They differ from normal contracts because they are self-executing; meaning that once certain conditions are met, specific actions take place without human intervention. 

Of all the aforementioned languages, Python, JavaScript and C++ play significant roles in Solidity - one of the most widely used smart contract programming languages.


Designed to create smart contracts on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), this language is designed based on other programming languages (Python, JavaScript and C++). So, by knowing them, you will be instantly familiar with Solidity. 

This language has wide market adoption, a large accessible community, and is also being used to build Dapps. 

Frequently, Solidity is used for creating contracts such as voting, crowdfunding, blind auctions, and multi-signature wallets.


This language programming also targets EVM and is pythonic contract-oriented. So, if you have worked with Python code it will be much easier to write on Vyper.  

The language primes for compiler simplicity and was created to complement Solidity, with the main goal of making contracts more secure. At this point, focusing on security, it is important to know that Vyper omits the following Solidity’s features: 

  • Overflow

  • Unbounded arrays

  • Infinite Loops 

  • Modifiers

  • Inheritance

  • Assembly support

Vyper’s official documentation for reference.


Relatively new, this language is focused on efficiency because of its simplicity. It’s been used by Solana - one of the fastest blockchains - Polkadot, and Near Blockchain.  

To help with debugging, Rust’s compiler is color-coded and may show the causes of errors on the code.

On the other hand, you might get some time to get used to use it (differently from Solidity, which is similar to Python and JavaScript). To help you, here is a link from GitHub where you can find more about Rust blockchain projects. 

Nodes are essential on the web3 developer stack

As you should know, blockchains run thanks to nodes. These nodes run copies of the blockchain, being essential on the web3 developer stack. 

An example of nodes' importance is that smart contracts only interact with web3 libraries thanks to nodes. 

So, as a web3 developer, we recommend you study and use a global network such as QuickNode API, that offers high-performance and instant access to 13 blockchains, including Ethereum, Bitcoin networks, Solana and Binance Smart Chain. 

With QuickNode, developers can see the node's smart contract, detect trends in the traffic, unlock tools to debug Dapps and understand when web3 calls are failing.

The importance of Wallets

Storing cryptocurrencies and tokens is an essential part of web3 because it addresses the identity of individuals and holds crypto. 

So, this knowledge is critical to write and verifying operations on the blockchain, being part of the web3 developer stack. 

Again, languages such as JavaScript, Python, Ruby, Go, or PHP are very useful to web3 developers to generate addresses on Ethereum or create their own wallets. Another good alternative is integrating QuickNode with MetaMask. Here is a guide to do it.

Blockchain development environments for EVM

Above all, we can say something: learning Solidity and Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) may be the best way to get started as a blockchain developer. 

Thinking of this, here is a list of some good development environments for you that needs knowledge of the programming languages that you told you above 

  • Hardhat is based on JavaScript. This environment is a local Ethereum network and an extensible developer tool for developing smart contracts. It is also simple for Solidity debugging, deploying contracts and run tests.

  • Truffle is also based on JavaScript and has a suite of tools for smart contracts and Dapps on EVM. 

  • Brownie is Python-based and ideal for testing frameworks and smart contracts for Solidity/EVM. 

Storing images, videos and files

On the web3 developer stack, you should also know where to store images, videos and other files. 

At this point, we can say that Arweave, IPFS (that is a peer-to-peer file system protocol), Filecoin and Skynet are alternatives of file storage protocols for web3 environments.

Practice through hackathons and bounties

With TAIKAI and Bepro Network, our autonomous protocol for decentralized development, professionals can easily make the transition from being software developers to become blockchain developers. Here's how.

Join hackathons to put theory into practice

TAIKAI and other partners create competitions and online challenges that can help you apply your programming skills to web3. By participating in our challenges, you could also be rewarded with KAI Tokens, our cryptocurrency, on top of the hackathon prizes.

Challenges such as hackathons are excellent opportunities to test and validate your ideas while practicing your knowledge of programming languages.

👉 Check the available hackathons


Bepro Network is a web3 bounty platform that enables developers to earn rewards for identifying and fixing bugs or other developing features within web3 projects. With a variety of bounties available, Bepro Network makes it easy for web3 developers to connect with web3 projects in need of their expertise. 

Whether you are looking to make some extra money or simply want to support open-source projects, bepro is the perfect platform for web3 enthusiasts.

Bounties are a great way for new web3 developers to get involved in the web3 community and gain valuable experience. They provide an opportunity to work on real web3 projects and make connections with other professionals, while also offering financial incentives. Additionally, web3 bounty platforms typically offer resources and support to help web3 developers succeed, making them a great choice for anyone looking to start or advance their web3 career. 

So if you're a web3 novice looking for new challenges and opportunities, web3 bounties are definitely worth considering.

Take advantage of SDKs

SDK - or software development kits - are tools you should also use to develop faster and more efficiently.

We built our own open-source  web3 SDK named dappKit: a powerful tool that allows faster project development because it's user-friendly and a very simple way to create web3 apps/products, saving hours of work by eliminating the need to create web3 code from scratch. 

We also provide team/community support for documentation.

To summarize 💭

In order to become a web3 developer, you should learn and practice programming languages that will be helpful in the blockchain world. These include Phyton, JavaScript, C and C++, PHP, C# and Go. They provide essential foundations for starting to program on the web3.

Before you can start developing on the blockchain, it is essential that you learn Solidity and Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). Additionally, Vyper, Rust, and Yul are key languages to know. However, understanding nodes are also critical at this stage in your development. You could use a service such as QuickNode for this.

To put all this into practice, you can also participate in hackathon competitions, develop features through bounties, or use SDKs such as dappKit to enable faster development.

Carlos Mendes
Carlos Mendes
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